Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA)

Acting in response to the U.S. Supreme Court’s judgment in Employment Division, Department of Human Resources v. Smith (1990), Congress enacted the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) in 1993 pursuant to the Necessary and Proper Clause in the federal Constitution.

Civil Rights Act of 1871, Section 1983

Individuals who are associated with colleges and universities, whether students, faculty, staff, or guests visiting on campuses, whose civil rights have been violated may sue for equitable relief or monetary damages under Section 1983 of the Civil Rights Act of 1871.

Academic Freedom

The concept of academic freedom, although not enumerated in the First Amendment, is based on freedom of speech and applies generally to all levels of education.