Sweatt v. Painter

In Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka (1954), the U.S. Supreme Court overruled the “separate but equal” doctrine that it had articulated in the late 19th century in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) was a landmark case in which the U.S. Supreme Court first addressed the merits of a claim on affirmative action, also identified by critics as race-conscious admissions policies or reverse discrimination (the term used in the plaintiff’s complaint), an extremely controversial topic with regard to admissions programs in higher education.

McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education

McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education (1950) was one of the key cases that invalidated intra-and interinstitution racial segregation in colleges and universities that helped to pave the way for Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka (1954).

Grutter v. Bollinger

Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) is a landmark judgment of the U.S. Supreme Court that together with its companion case, Gratz v. Bollinger, clarifies the circumstances under which college and university officials may consider race in admissions actions.

Gratz v. Bollinger

Gratz v. Bollinger is a landmark 2003 judgment of U.S. Supreme Court that together with its companion case, Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), defines the circumstances under which officials at colleges and universities may consider race in making admissions decisions.

DeFunis v. Odegaard

Affirmative action, which was introduced at the national level by President John F. Kennedy’s Executive Order 10925, called for the creation of the Committee of Equal Employment Opportunity in order to promote access and equity for minorities in programs utilizing federal funds.

Berea College v. Kentucky

Berea College v. Kentucky (1908) is a significantcivil rights case in higher education that paved theway for subsequent judicial decisions that struckdown segregated educational facilities as unconstitutional.